This spring, a staff of archaeologists and volunteers started painstakingly digging into the historical past of Fort Mercer, a Revolutionary War fortification on the Delaware River that’s now the centerpiece of Red Bank Battlefield Park in National Park, N.J.
During the battle, Continental Army troopers have been stationed on the fort to maintain the British and their Hessian mercenary allies from resupplying troops in close by Philadelphia. On Oct. 22, 1777, the military repelled a main assault by Hessian forces. Little-known at this time, the Battle of Red Bank was transient and ferocious, marking one of many worst defeats the Hessians suffered within the battle.
The archaeologists have been centered on excavating a trench that had been used to defend the fort through the battle. “My sense was we were going to be looking at the kind of trash that a garrison might throw away,” mentioned Wade Catts, principal archaeologist with South River Heritage Consulting in Newark, Del. Mr. Catts led the dig with Jennifer Janofsky, the director of the park and a historian at Rowan University in Glassboro, N.J.
Instead, at about 2 p.m. on June 26, the final day of discipline work, the staff discovered a leg bone; they shortly decided that it had belonged to one of many attacking Hessians. It was the primary human bone to be discovered on the web site since 1904, when a new fence was constructed on the battlefield. Over the following few weeks, the group recovered the stays of 14 people, which promise to supply scientists with a detailed take a look at navy life and dying in that period. “I didn’t really think we were going to get a mass burial,” Mr. Catts mentioned.
On the day of the assault in 1777, the Hessians absolutely thought the identical. The pressure of two,300 mercenaries was led by Col. Carl Emil Ulrich von Donop, a brave chief with a fiery mood, in accordance with letters written by his officers. The fort was defended by solely 534 troopers, together with members of the Sixth Virginia Regiment and the New Jersey militia, in addition to members of the First and Second Rhode Island Regiments, two of the nation’s first built-in navy models. Forty-eight of the American troopers have been Black; the regiments additionally included Native Americans of the Narragansett individuals.
Colonel von Donop was assured of victory. Fort Mercer “will be Fort Donop or I shall be dead,” he wrote to Gen. William Howe, commander of the British navy forces. When the Hessians arrived on the fort, Colonel von Donop despatched an officer to name for the Americans to give up. “The King of England orders his rebellious subjects to lay down their arms,” the demand said. “If they stand battle, no quarter whatever will be given.”
The American commander, Col. Christopher Greene, quickly replied: The Americans accepted the problem, and no quarter needs to be taken on both facet. Fighting commenced at 4 p.m. From the river, 13 galleys of the Pennsylvania Navy instantly bombarded the Hessians with cannon fireplace, and the troopers inside Fort Mercer opened up with muskets and 14 cannons of their very own. Two battalions and one regiment of Hessian troopers superior by way of the barrage. Their assault was slowed by bushes that had been minimize down; branches had been sharpened and stacked in a line across the fort. The battle lasted simply 75 minutes; when it was over, 377 Hessian troopers — and simply 14 Americans — have been lifeless.
The horror of that afternoon was quickly obvious to the archaeologists. From an excavation pit 10 ft extensive, 30 ft lengthy and four-and-a-half ft deep, they recovered 14 skulls and quite a few different human bones. Mr. Catts believes that the troopers belonged to the Regiment von Mirbach and that they have been on the middle of the Hessian formations through the assault. The accidents to at least one soldier, Mr. Catts mentioned, included “a musket ball in the lower part of his back above where his pelvis should be; a lead canister shot in the middle of his back, where he had no more thoracic vertebra; and then a one-and-a-half-inch iron grapeshot that seems to have taken off his left arm.”
Dr. Janofsky famous that the ships on the river have been firing chain shot and bar shot on the Hessians, ammunition that’s designed to destroy a ship’s rigging. “These guys were being hit by all kinds of things,” Mr. Catts mentioned. “What a horrible place this would have been.”
According to accounts written by surviving Hessian officers, a lot of the wounded have been left on the battlefield: The Hessians had not introduced wagons to hold them and the American troopers, fearing one other assault, remained contained in the fort. “It is painful for me to lose so many good people, I can’t describe it and I have not recovered from it,” Lt. Col. Ludwig Johann Adolph von Wurmb, who took half within the assault, wrote a few days later. “The tragedy of our poor wounded here in America is not describable without shedding tears, and those left behind with the enemy have no aid.”
That evening, a group of American troopers ventured out to restore a few of the defenses. A voice known as out from the battlefield: “Whoever you are, take me out of here.” It was Colonel von Donop, who had been shot within the hip.
According to Capt. Thomas Antoine Mauduit du Plessis, the French engineer main the group, an American soldier shouted out, “Well now, is it agreed that no quarter will be given?” The colonel replied, “I am in your hands. You may take your revenge.” The Americans introduced him into the fort and cared for him till he died a week later.
The remainder of the Hessian wounded have been left the place they lay till the following day, when American troopers have been tasked with burying the lifeless. The ditch in entrance of the fort might have been a straightforward place to get rid of the our bodies, Dr. Janofsky mentioned. “Are we looking at somebody who was shot, died and is buried?” she mentioned. “Or are we looking at what the burial party did on Oct. 23, 1777, which was essentially pitching bodies into a convenient hole?”
The first human bone recovered, a femur, was discovered within the excavation pit by Joe Reilly, a self-described historical past nerd and volunteer, and Wayne Wilson, one other volunteer excavator. As quickly because it emerged, all digging stopped — the usual process when human bones are discovered. Anna Delaney, the forensic anthropologist for the New Jersey State Police, was known as in, and he or she decided that the femur didn’t belong to somebody who had died lately. Its superior state of degradation made that apparent, she mentioned.
In the following weeks, Ms. Delaney helped take away all of the human stays from the location and preserved them in her lab, the place they are going to be analyzed and, hopefully, will start to disclose particulars of the troopers’ lives. She and Thomas Crist, a forensic anthropologist at Utica University who has labored on Revolutionary War stays, plan to review the chemical composition of the bones. Certain steady isotopes, and the presence of hint components, may also help decide the place a particular person grew up and what that particular person’s eating regimen and well being have been like later in life.
Ms. Delaney and Dr. Crist additionally hope to get well DNA from the bones and from traces of blood on a few of the artifacts. Genetic evaluation might permit the researchers to reconstruct the troopers’ household bushes and to be taught their identities, Ms. Delaney mentioned: “To be able to give one of these soldiers their name back, to give their family back something, I think that is actually the most exciting part of the whole process.” Once the analyses are full, the bones will probably be reburied in a location but to be decided.
Some of the artifacts recovered from the location inform their very own tales. A row of buttons was discovered, laid out as if they’d rested on a coat that was thrown into the ditch and that subsequently rotted away. The buttons match the outline of these on the uniforms of the Regiment von Mirbach, Dr. Janofsky mentioned. She suspects that the coat might have been used to move severed physique components to the ditch.
Another intriguing artifact discovered on the web site was a British gold coin, value about one month’s wage for the typical soldier, that Mr. Catts thinks might have belonged to Lt. Col. Ernst Rudolf von Schieck, who commanded the Hessian regiment and died within the combating.
For Dr. Janofsky, the human stays add poignancy to the story of the battle. Among the lifeless was a man between 17 and 19 years previous, the identical age as lots of her historical past college students. “Very few of us have seen the violence of the battlefield, and it’s what we’ve been looking at for the past months,” she mentioned. “I feel like we are charged with helping our visitors understand that moment.”