11 American Landmarks That Were Destroyed By Development

From the unique Penn Station to the Old Cincinnati Library, these majestic landmarks had been demolished to make room for parking garages, places of work, and extra “modernized” buildings.

Urban growth is an important a part of any society. As populations develop, cities should have the ability to present their residents with authorities providers, infrastructure, and leisure amenities. Unfortunately, this typically results in destroyed landmarks and demolished historic buildings.

As the inhabitants of the United States boomed after World War II, society needed to change quickly to maintain up. Urban facilities unfold, resulting in the rise of suburbia. And with that enlargement got here the necessity for extra transportation.

George Rinhart/Corbis by way of Getty ImagesThe demolition of the unique Penn Station in New York City. Circa 1963.

Some cities established efficient techniques of public transportation, however others relied closely on automobile journey. The wholesome economic system allowed the typical household to afford a private automobile, and the funding of the Interstate Highway System in 1956 solely added to the necessity for automobiles and locations to park them.

However, to make method for all the brand new roads, parking garages, and transportation techniques, older buildings needed to come down. And across the similar time, many elaborate houses and companies of yore had been razed with the intention to appease America’s love affair with trendy skyscrapers.

Here are 11 landmarks that had been destroyed within the identify of growth.

The Original Penn Station, New York City

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The authentic Penn Station, shortly after it was accomplished. Circa 1910.Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons

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The major concourse of Penn Station in 1910.Library of Congress

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The exterior of Penn Station in 1962.Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons

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Penn Station in 1962, shortly earlier than its demolition.Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons

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The major concourse of Penn Station in 1962.Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons

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An commercial for the upcoming Madison Square Garden adorns the facade of Penn Station in 1966.Wikimedia Commons

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Demolition of the previous Penn Station passed off between 1963 and 1968.Bettmann/Contributor by way of Getty Images

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An inside view of the destruction of Penn Station. 1965.Robert R McElroy/Getty Images

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Today, the sports activities venue Madison Square Garden nonetheless stands on the location of the unique Penn Station constructing.John Wisniewski/Flickr

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Penn Station In 1962

When it involves destroyed landmarks, New York’s Pennsylvania Station — higher generally known as Penn Station — is usually one of many first to return to thoughts. Today, it sits beneath Madison Square Garden in Midtown Manhattan and serves greater than 600,000 day by day passengers, in accordance with The New York Times. But earlier than it was pushed underground within the Nineteen Sixties, Penn Station was a “beautiful Beaux-Arts fortress” that was one of many metropolis’s crown jewels.

With 84 big Doric columns, 22 eagle sculptures, and a 138-foot-high ceiling, the constructing was an architectural marvel. By the Fifties, nonetheless, passenger quantity had declined, and the constructing had grow to be costly to take care of — so the Pennsylvania Railroad determined to demolish the top home and practice shed whereas holding the underground tracks in service.

In 1961, plans to assemble the Madison Square Garden sports activities and leisure advanced atop Penn Station had been introduced, however the scheme quickly confronted public controversy. The famed artwork historian Vincent Scully as soon as wrote of the sharp distinction between the previous construction and the brand new one: “One entered the city like a god. One scuttles in now like a rat.”

Despite public resistance, nonetheless, demolition of the unique Penn Station started in October 1963, and Madison Square Garden opened 5 years later.

Garrick Theater, Chicago

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Garrick Theater. Circa 1900.Wikimedia Commons

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Garrick Theater was designed by architects Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler of the agency Adler & Sullivan.Library of Congress

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The intricate proscenium above Garrick Theater’s stage.Richard Nickel, Ryerson & Burnham Archives, The Art Institute of Chicago

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Photographer Richard Nickel fiercely protested the destruction of Garrick Theater and launched a creative marketing campaign to save lots of the constructing, which led to an enormous public outcry in opposition to the demolition.Wrightwood 659/Facebook

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Ultimately, Garrick Theater was demolished in 1961 and changed with a parking storage.Richard Nickel, Ryerson & Burnham Archives, The Art Institute of Chicago

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The website of the previous Garrick Theater as we speak.Google Maps

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Protests At Garrick Theater

In the late nineteenth century, architects Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler collaborated to design the Schiller Building in Chicago. At the time of its development, it was one of many tallest buildings within the Windy City.

Opened in 1891, it was initially supposed for the German Opera Company as a spot to carry musical and cultural occasions. But the constructing quickly modified fingers. It turned generally known as Garrick Theater and commenced internet hosting stage reveals.

Over the course of its brief life, the constructing additionally housed a movie show and a tv studio. However, after a decline in enterprise, the 1,300-seat theater was razed in 1961, and a parking storage was constructed on the location.

According to the Chicago Reader, there was such an uproar in opposition to the demolition that it sparked Chicago’s historic preservation motion and contributed to the passing of the town’s Landmark Ordinance of 1968.

Erie County Savings Bank, Buffalo

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Erie County Savings Bank. Circa 1910s.Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons

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The Erie County Savings Bank was constructed between 1890 and 1893.Library of Congress

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The major entrance of Erie County Savings Bank.Library of Congress

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The financial institution was designed by the famed architect George B. Post, who additionally designed the Cornelius Vanderbilt II House in New York City.Library of Congress

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Erie County Savings Bank in 1965, pictured shortly earlier than its demolition.Wikimedia Commons

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The financial institution was demolished in 1968 as a part of an city renewal mission.YouTube

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The demolition of Erie County Savings Bank in 1968.YouTube

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Main Place Tower, a contemporary skyscraper, was constructed on the location of the previous financial institution.Wikimedia Commons

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Erie County Savings Bank Exterior Details

In 1890, development began on the eye-catching new headquarters for the Erie County Savings Bank in Buffalo, New York. The Romanesque Revival constructing was designed by architect George B. Post and boasted 10 tales of beautiful pink granite, in accordance with Western New York Heritage Press.

Thomas Edison himself designed the constructing’s electrical system, and the financial institution was formally opened in 1893. Sadly, the construction stood for about 75 years earlier than it was demolished in 1968 as a part of an city renewal mission.

Architect Harold L. Olmsted, who tried to assist save the constructing, stated: “The whole place, upstairs and down, reeks with honesty and open-minded intelligence from its delightful pavement blocks to its heavily paneled doors and wainscots, its lovely windows and the views they so adequately and amusingly frame… its charming variance in plan from the usual.”

Still, the triangular, castle-like construction was in the end changed by a skyscraper referred to as Main Place Tower, which served because the financial institution’s new headquarters till the enterprise was dissolved within the Nineties.

Cornelius Vanderbilt II House, New York City

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The Cornelius Vanderbilt II House quickly after its development in 1883.Cornell University Library

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Cornelius Vanderbilt II constructed his towering mansion on Fifth Avenue, which was generally known as “Millionaire’s Row.”Library of Congress

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In the late Eighteen Eighties and the early Eighteen Nineties, Vanderbilt purchased the entire property on his block and expanded the mansion. H.N. Tiemann/The New York Historical Society/Getty Images

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Beaux-Arts sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens created this mantelpiece for the mansion. It can nonetheless be seen as we speak within the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Wikimedia Commons

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The Cornelius Vanderbilt II House was reportedly the most important non-public residence in New York City.Library of Congress

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The mansion in 1921, simply 5 years earlier than Cornelius Vanderbilt II’s spouse Alice was pressured to promote it.Library of Congress

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The mansion was demolished within the late Twenties to make method for business growth.Larry Froeber/NY Daily News Archive by way of Getty Images

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Workers dismantle the principle staircase of the mansion.Bettmann/Contributor by way of Getty Images

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The Bergdorf Goodman division retailer was constructed on the location of Cornelius Vanderbilt II’s mansion.Wikimedia Commons

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Vanderbilt House Fireplace

Cornelius Vanderbilt II House

Even within the nineteenth century, Fifth Avenue was one of many wealthiest streets in New York City. According to Untapped Cities, Cornelius Vanderbilt II — the favourite grandson of the profitable American railroad magnate — determined to construct his personal luxurious home on “Millionaire’s Row” in 1883.

Vanderbilt employed famed architect George B. Post to design a five-story house that he later expanded right into a 130-room mansion. It was reportedly the most important single-family house within the metropolis, and Vanderbilt made certain to go away his spouse a big belief fund in order that she might keep it after his loss of life in 1899.

However, in 1926, Alice Vanderbilt was pressured to promote the house attributable to in depth business growth close by. Developers paid $7 million for the mansion — after which promptly tore it right down to construct Bergdorf Goodman, the posh division retailer that continues to be on the location to at the present time.

That stated, some bits and items of Vanderbilt’s home are nonetheless scattered across the metropolis, from the entrance gates that stand in Central Park to the fireside that may now be seen within the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Old Prentice Women’s Hospital, Chicago

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The Old Prentice Women’s Hospital opened in 1975.Wikimedia Commons

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Prentice Women’s Hospital was designed by architect Bertrand Goldberg, who was recognized for his innovation.Wikimedia Commons

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Prentice Women’s Hospital in 2013.Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images

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Demolition started in 2013.National Trust for Historic Preservation/YouTube

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Northwestern University constructed a brand new analysis heart on the location of the previous hospital.Simpson Querrey Institute/Twitter

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Destruction Of Prentice Womens Hospital

Prentice Women’s Hospital

Most destroyed landmarks are from instances gone, however it’s simply as devastating when newer artistic endeavors are demolished. In 1975, an exceptionally distinctive hospital opened in Chicago, Illinois. Designed by architect Bertrand Goldberg, the previous Prentice Women’s Hospital featured a nine-story quatrefoil tower positioned atop a five-story rectangular constructing.

The Brutalist type and distinctive form made the hospital “the only example of its type anywhere in the world,” in accordance with structural engineer William F. Baker. Interestingly sufficient, it was additionally one of many first development initiatives to be designed with the assistance of pc software program.

But when a extra trendy hospital was inbuilt 2007, the previous Prentice Women’s Hospital was now not wanted. The constructing was vacated in 2011, and Northwestern University quickly introduced its plans to demolish it and construct a state-of-the-art analysis heart as a replacement. The thought confronted intense backlash, and preservationists started petitioning the Chicago Landmarks Commission to save lots of the construction, in accordance with DNAinfo Chicago.

However, after years of debate, Northwestern obtained permission to raze the constructing, and the demolition was accomplished in 2014. Today, the 14-story Simpson Querrey Biomedical Research Center towers over the location.

Old Cincinnati Library, Cincinnati

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The Old Cincinnati Library stood for about 80 years.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The “Old Main” Library was opened in 1874.Cincinnati Historical Society/Getty Images

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The constructing was meant to be an opera home, however it was became a library when the unique mission misplaced funding.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The library regarded unassuming from the skin, however the inside was a masterpiece.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The Main Hall of the Old Cincinnati Library.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The library was able to holding as much as 300,000 books.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The spiral staircases, iron e book alcoves, and marble flooring made a shocking backdrop for patrons to learn and examine.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The entrance corridor of the Old Cincinnati Library.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The constructing was demolished in 1955 after a extra trendy (and sensible) library was constructed close by.The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

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The “Old Main” Library was changed by a parking storage and an uninspired workplace constructing.Google Maps

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Entrance Of Cincinnati Public Library

Old Cincinnati Public Library

For about 80 years, the Old Cincinnati Library regarded like one thing out of a film. With marble flooring, towering bookshelves, spiral staircases, and skylights, the constructing on Vine Street housed one of the vital lovely libraries on this planet. The “Old Main” Library opened in 1874, and the inside — which was designed by J.W. McLaughlin — instantly shocked patrons.

The constructing was initially supposed to be an opera home, however it was reworked right into a public library after the unique mission misplaced funding. During the library’s opening, the Cincinnati Enquirer praised the distinctive construction: “One is impressed not only with the magnitude and beauty of the interior but with its adaptation to the purpose it is to serve.”

However, by the Twenties, the library was working out of room for all its books. And in 1955, a brand new library opened simply down the highway. The attractive constructing was quickly demolished, and as we speak a parking storage sits on the location.

Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel, Atlantic City

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The newly-expanded Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel opened in 1906.Library of Congress

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A postcard of the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel in Atlantic City, New Jersey.Sepia Times/Universal Images Group by way of Getty Images

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The inside of the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel.Library of Congress

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The Queen Anne-style Marlborough House was the primary a part of the lodge, and it was inbuilt 1902.Library of Congress

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The Blenheim was added to the unique Marlborough House in 1905.Library of Congress

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The Blenheim addition to the lodge was the most important strengthened concrete constructing on this planet on the time.Library of Congress

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The Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel was demolished within the late Seventies to make method for the brand new Bally’s on line casino.Library of Congress

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The demolition of the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel.Library of Congress

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The well-known Atlantic City Boardwalk will be seen within the background because the lodge is demolished.Library of Congress

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The destruction of the lodge’s iconic domes.Temple University Libraries

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Bally’s Park Place Casino and Hotel was constructed on the location of the previous Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel.John Greim/LightRocket by way of Getty Images

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Now generally known as Bally’s Atlantic City, the on line casino lodge is without doubt one of the largest on the town.Facebook/Bally’s Atlantic City

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Marlborough Blenheim Hotel Before Destruction

Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel

In 1902, Josiah White III started constructing a Queen Anne-style lodge in Atlantic City, New Jersey, which he dubbed the Marlborough. Shortly thereafter, he determined to broaden the resort and employed architect Will Price to assist him design a separate tower referred to as the Blenheim, which was named after Winston Churchill’s birthplace and ancestral house in England.

It was the most important strengthened concrete constructing on this planet on the time, and it featured Spanish and Moorish themes and a towering dome. Together, the 2 buildings fashioned the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel. It turned a staple of Atlantic City, and Winston Churchill himself even stayed there in 1916.

But then in 1977, Bally Manufacturing, a big producer of slot machines, took management of the property, in accordance with the Atlantic City Experience. Despite fierce protests, the corporate demolished the lodge and constructed Bally’s Park Place Casino and Hotel on the location of the destroyed landmark.

Today, Bally’s Atlantic City is without doubt one of the largest accommodations on the boardwalk, boasting 83,000 sq. toes of gaming house with over 1,300 slot machines.

Chicago Federal Building, Chicago

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Construction on the Chicago Federal Building lasted from 1898 to 1905.Wikimedia Commons

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The Chicago Federal Building was constructed when the town’s inhabitants exploded within the late nineteenth century.Wikimedia Commons

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The Beaux-Arts constructing was designed by the architect Henry Ives Cobb.Library of Congress

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An inside shot of the Chicago Federal Building’s dome.Library of Congress

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The demolition of the Chicago Federal Building in 1965.Hedrich Blessing Collection/Getty Images

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The Kluczynski Federal Building, a contemporary skyscraper, changed the previous Chicago Federal Building.Wikimedia Commons

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Flamingo, a contemporary metal sculpture created by the artist Alexander Calder, is situated within the plaza the place the previous federal constructing as soon as stood.Picryl

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Interior Of Chicago Federal Building Dome

In the late nineteenth century, Chicago’s inhabitants began to develop quickly, particularly after the town hosted the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. The courts, publish places of work, and different authorities bureaus had been having hassle dealing with the large inflow of recent residents, so the town constructed the Chicago Federal Building to higher serve the increasing neighborhood.

According to Preservation Chicago, architect Henry Ives Cobb designed the Beaux-Arts construction, which featured a two-story base topped with a six-story Greek cross. It additionally boasted a 300-foot-high octagonal rotunda.

For about 60 years, this constructing housed a number of federal companies. It additionally held a long time of Chicago historical past inside its partitions. The trial of infamous gangster Al Capone for tax evasion was held in one of many constructing’s courtrooms, and Walt Disney had as soon as labored on the publish workplace inside the identical constructing.

But in 1965, the Chicago Federal Building was demolished, and the destroyed landmark was changed by the Kluczynski Federal Building, a 45-floor construction product of metal and glass that also stands there as we speak.

Richfield Tower, Los Angeles

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The Richfield Tower was constructed between 1928 and 1929 because the headquarters for Richfield Oil.USC Libraries/Corbis by way of Getty Images

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A postcard of Richfield Tower. Circa 1930-1945.Wikimedia Commons

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The Art Deco-style Richfield Tower was designed by Stiles O. Clements.Wikimedia Commons

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The inside of Richfield Tower.Wikimedia Commons

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Richfield Tower was black and gold to represent “black gold,” a well-liked nickname for high-value oil.Hollywood Classic Tours/Facebook

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The beacon atop Richfield Tower was designed to characterize an oil derrick.Los Angeles Examiner/USC Libraries/Corbis by way of Getty Images

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The tower was demolished in 1969 after Richfield Oil outgrew the constructing.Wikimedia Commons

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ARCO Plaza — now generally known as City National Plaza — was constructed on the location of the previous Richfield Tower.Wikimedia Commons

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Interior Of Richfield Tower

Also generally known as the Richfield Oil Company Building, the Richfield Tower in Los Angeles was constructed between 1928 and 1929. Designed by Stiles O. Clements, the constructing boasted a putting black and gold Art Deco facade. This helped it stand out amongst the entire different buildings that surrounded it.

According to the Pacific Coast Architecture Database, the distinctive type alternative was meant to represent “black gold,” the nickname for oil attributable to its darkish coloration and excessive worth. Likewise, the lighting on the 130-foot beacon on the high of the constructing was meant to simulate an oil derrick.

The construction stood 372 toes excessive, together with the beacon, which was emblazoned with the phrase “Richfield.” By the Nineteen Sixties, nonetheless, the Richfield Oil Company had outgrown the constructing. It was demolished in 1969, and the ARCO Plaza skyscraper advanced — now generally known as City National Plaza — was constructed on the location. However, the exceptional elevator doorways from the destroyed landmark had been salvaged and reused as decor on the plaza.

Keith’s New Theatre, Philadelphia

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Keith’s New Theatre. Circa 1905.Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group by way of Getty Images

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An engraved coloration commercial for Keith’s New Theatre. Circa early 1900s.Archive Photos/Getty Images

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The grand entrance of Keith’s New Theatre. Circa early 1900s.Library of Congress

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Keith’s New Theatre was a serious vacation spot for vaudeville stars within the early twentieth century.Public Domain

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Charlie Chaplin, the Marx Brothers, and Fred Astaire all carried out at Keith’s New Theatre.Public Domain

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The Crystal Lobby.Old Images of Philadelphia/Facebook

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The theater’s intricate inside was lovely, however enterprise started to say no within the Thirties as vaudeville leisure finally fell out of vogue.Old Images of Philadelphia/Facebook

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In the Forties, William Goldman bought the constructing, renovated it extensively to function a movie show, and renamed it the Randolph Theatre after his late son.Cinema Treasures

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The constructing was demolished within the early Seventies and changed by quite a few retail and workplace areas.Google Maps

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Music Room Of Keiths New Theatre

In 1901, impresario Benjamin F. Keith opened Chestnut Street Keith’s Theatre — later generally known as Keith’s New Theatre or just Keith’s Theatre — in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The beautiful constructing, which hosted vaudeville reveals, featured a recessed entrance, a triumphal arch, and Ionic columns.

Keith’s New Theatre turned a serious vacation spot for stars like Charlie Chaplin and the Marx Brothers. However, as vaudeville leisure turned much less standard, the theater misplaced enterprise. According to the Free Library of Philadelphia, William Goldman bought the constructing in 1943, turned it right into a movie show, and renamed it the Randolph Theatre after his late son.

In 1971, the theater was closed, and the once-impressive constructing was demolished. Today, the location is house to varied retail and workplace buildings.

Imperial Hotel, Indianapolis

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The constructing that housed the Imperial Hotel was initially constructed to carry the National Surgical Institute within the Eighteen Nineties. However, excessive development prices and monetary stress brought about the institute to go bankrupt, and the Imperial Hotel took over the constructing in 1900.The Indiana Album: Joan Hostetler Collection

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The Imperial Hotel was in enterprise from 1900 to 1914.Library of Congress

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The Imperial Hotel in 1905.The Indiana Album: Joan Hostetler Collection

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A postcard of the Imperial Hotel.The Indiana Album: Joan Hostetler Collection

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After Hotel Roosevelt took over the constructing, the brand new homeowners eliminated many of the exterior decorations to make the lodge look extra trendy. 1939.Bass Photo Co Collection, Indiana Historical Society

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The previous Imperial Hotel was demolished within the Forties and changed by an expansive car parking zone.Google Maps

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(*11*)

In the 1850s, Dr. Horace R. Allen based the National Surgical Institute, and the hospital shortly expanded, establishing satellite tv for pc providers in a number of cities. By the Eighteen Nineties, he had constructed a four-story construction in Indianapolis, Indiana, with the intention of housing the institute there. But excessive development prices shortly brought about the institute to go bankrupt.

The putting Queen Anne/Romanesque Revival constructing that briefly held the hospital quickly turned the Imperial Hotel. Since it was so near the Indiana State House, the lodge housed many legislators in its 200 rooms. According to Historic Indianapolis, it additionally held Turkish baths and a saloon.

The Imperial Hotel closed in 1914. Then, the Hotel Metropole took over for a number of years, at one level internet hosting troopers who had been attending courses close by in its “barracks.” When Hotel Roosevelt took management of the constructing within the Twenties, the brand new homeowners eliminated the domes, balconies, and roof decorations, maybe in an try to modernize the construction.

However, within the late Forties, all the constructing was demolished to make method for an expansive car parking zone. Today, many individuals who park there possible don’t know {that a} beautiful lodge as soon as stood in the identical spot.

After trying by way of these pictures of 11 destroyed landmarks, be taught concerning the 9 oldest buildings on this planet which might be nonetheless standing as we speak. Then, try these footage of previous New York earlier than the skyscrapers.

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